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What is Coronavirus, What are its Symptoms? 45 Unknown Questions About Coronavirus!

What is Coronavirus, What are its Symptoms? 45 Unknown Questions About Coronavirus!

The novel coronavirus, also known as the unofficial Wuhan coronavirus, as it was first seen in the Wuhan region of China in early December 2019 and was identified by the authorities in that region, is a contagious virus that causes respiratory tract infection and can be passed from person to person.


The official name of the virus has been determined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2). The World Health Organization uses the term to describe the disease caused by the virus.

On January 30, 2020, CoViD-19 was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization. On March 11, 2020, the virus was declared a , that is, a global epidemic.

What is the New Coronavirus? (Covid-19)

The novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is a new viral respiratory disease that was first identified on January 13, 2020, in Wuhan, China, with high fever and shortness of breath. It is known that the disease is transmitted by droplets and contact. It is defined as a pandemic because of the global epidemic situation it creates.

The new is a strain of the coronavirus family that can affect both animals and humans. In retrospect, some different viruses from the coronavirus family seem to cause severe respiratory diseases such as MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome).

are named after the Latin word corona, meaning crown, because when viewed with an electron microscope, it resembles a round, protruding crown.

Coronaviruses have been seen in our society for years. The simplest and most common of these is the common cold. A group of 20 different types of viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infection along with a runny nose is a coronavirus.

Many other coronaviruses from the coronavirus family cause milder diseases with milder symptoms than the new coronavirus. Therefore, coronaviruses have not caused any panic when it comes to diseases such as the common cold.

From time to time, coronaviruses can be transmitted between humans and animals. The genetic information of varies due to the mutation of their RNA. By clinging to the cell, especially in the surface proteins, and creating changes in the proteins it uses to get inside, it escapes the immune system that has already formed, and it can also multiply faster and cause much more damage to the cells.


The virus, previously called SARS, created a disease very similar to today's new coronavirus. The name SARS is formed using the initials of the English equivalent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. The second SARS virus analogy is used for the coronavirus, which is on the agenda today.

Apart from this, another virus from the coronavirus family came to the world agenda with its potential to cause serious diseases and the epidemics it caused. The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, called MERS, caused by a type of coronavirus transmitted from camels to humans, has created an epidemic in the Middle East region for a while.

However, since the effects of MERS in terms of disease are not seen all over the world, it was not called a pandemic. MERS is still seen as the case from time to time in the Middle East region at regular intervals.

The globally accepted name of the coronavirus disease, whose effects we are currently seeing, is CoViD-19 since it was first identified in 2019.

What is a Virus?

Viruses are known as the simplest self-replicating organisms. It consists of a protein layer that surrounds molecules called DNA or RNA that carry only its genetic structure.

Some viruses have an enveloping layer of fat, called an envelope, as in the new coronavirus, for example. Such a simple organism cannot reproduce on its own.

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites; They are microorganisms called hosts, which can multiply when they enter the cell they have chosen uniquely. We can compare this situation to computer viruses.

Computer viruses are also very small programs; They cannot operate a computer by themselves. To be able to reproduce itself, it aims to enter the computer program and use the operating system there and send copies of itself to other computers.

Just as a computer program reproduces and spreads itself, the analogy of viruses to these programs is an example similar to that in nature.

Viruses select very specific cells; For example, the new coronavirus is transmitted from person to person through droplets because it loves the respiratory tract mucous membranes. This period is called the incubation period, as it takes a certain time for the virus to multiply and damage the tissues when it enters the respiratory tract mucous membranes.

What are Corona Virus (Coronavirus) Symptoms?

Symptoms of new coronavirus infection include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, kidney failure, and even death.

Like all virus types, coronaviruses, which have constantly evolved, have started to cause more serious health problems with flu-like symptoms since 2002.


Coronaviruses are zoonic viruses that carry a risk of transmission between animals and humans. It is thought that the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, known as MERS in the past, was transmitted from camels, and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, known as SARS, from civet cats to humans.

Standard recommendations to prevent the spread of coronavirus infections include regularly washing and cleaning hands with alcohol hand sanitizers or soap and water, covering the mouth and nose with a tissue or the inside of the elbow when coughing and sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people with these symptoms. The used tissue should be thrown away immediately.

It is recommended to stay away from living animal markets in places where there are cases of coronavirus.

Among the symptoms of the coronavirus, the most common symptoms are known as high fever, headache, and dry cough that continue for several days. However, the following symptoms are observed in some patients;

  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough with phlegm,
  • Sore throat
  • Muscle and joint pain,
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Anorexia,
  • Runny nose
  • Headache
  • Severe respiratory failure,
  • Conditions such as kidney failure can be among the symptoms of coronavirus.

Before going to the relevant health institutions, people who show symptoms of the coronavirus should take precautions by wearing a mask in order not to infect the people around them.

How is Corona Virus (Coronavirus) Treated?

There is currently no specific definitive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 Acute Respiratory Disease. The treatment performed focuses on relieving symptoms such as fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath.

Research continues to determine whether current pneumonia treatments are effective for this disease. Antibiotics are not effective because the disease is virus-based.

After the diagnosis of coronavirus (COVID-19) disease, pain relievers, and antipyretic drugs can be used under the control of a doctor to control the symptoms of the disease.

Balancing the humidity of the rooms where the sick person is, consuming hot drinks such as tea and warm showers will help relieve sore throat and/or cough.

Drinking plenty of fluids, rest, and regular sleep are important for alleviating the symptoms of the disease. However, if the symptoms of the disease start to progress more severely than the normal cold process, it is necessary to consult a specialist doctor.


If you think that you or the people around you have symptoms of new coronavirus disease, you should apply to a health institution by wearing a mask as soon as possible.

How Does the Immune System Fight the Coronavirus?

When a foreign organism or a substance enters our body, our immune system cells immediately detect it. When they perceive this, they try to protect our body against these organisms both at the cellular level and at the level of proteins called antibodies.

When a foreign substance enters our body, the foreign protein on these foreign substances is perceived by the receptors on the surface of various defense cells, where it is different from other proteins in the body.

Antibody proteins are produced by the body, which will bind with this detected foreign protein in a complete key-lock method and neutralize it.

Antibodies bind to foreign proteins, rendering them dysfunctional. For example, when the proteins that viruses use to enter our cells are rendered dysfunctional by the body's antibodies, the virus cannot attach itself to the cells and enter. This logic is also used in vaccine production.

The substance in the vaccine is not the virus itself, but the proteins it uses to enter the cell. In this way, our body creates antibodies in our body that will block and bind this protein beforehand.

In this way, even if the body encounters the virus, which is the agent itself, it prevents us from getting sick by quickly deactivating the proteins that the virus uses to enter the cell, thanks to antibodies.

How is Coronavirus (Coronavirus) Diagnosed?

For the diagnosis of the new coronavirus, testing in a laboratory setting is necessary. The definitive diagnosis of coronavirus is carried out by molecular tests.

Diagnosis is made by detecting the genetic material of the virus on samples such as throat swabs and sputum that can be taken from people who meet the definition of a possible case. Diagnostic tests, for which samples are taken, can be performed at the "National Virology Reference Laboratory of the General Directorate of Public Health" in our country and "Public Health Laboratories" determined by the Ministry of Health.

Corona Virus (Coronavirus) Vaccine Found?

Studies on the creation of a vaccine based on the genome of the New Coronavirus Disease, also known as the Wuhan Coronavirus, published by China, have been started at the international level. Various universities and private institutions in the USA, Australia, China, England, and Canada have announced that they are very close to starting clinical tests.

How is Corona Virus (Coronavirus) Test Done?

For the diagnosis of the new coronavirus, testing in a laboratory setting is necessary. The definitive diagnosis of coronavirus is carried out by molecular tests.

Diagnosis is made by detecting the genetic material of the virus on samples such as throat swabs and sputum that can be taken from people who meet the definition of a possible case. Diagnostic tests, for which samples are taken, can be performed at the "National Virology Reference Laboratory of the General Directorate of Public Health" in our country and "Public Health Laboratories" determined by the Ministry of Health.

How is Corona Virus (Coronavirus) Transmitted?

As a result of the researches, it was seen that the virus is from the coronavirus family, which is a single-stranded RNA virus. The virus is thought to be of animal origin, as the first cases were linked to a large seafood and animal market in the region.


It is known that the virus can be transmitted from person to person through droplets and direct contact. On the other hand, respiratory droplets that can spread to surfaces through coughing are contagious for a while.

The virus settles in the respiratory system. Studies have shown that people who carry the virus without showing symptoms and who are in the incubation period are also contagious. However, the spread during the incubation period is not the period when the virus spreads most effectively.

The virus is transmitted by the droplets emitted from sick individuals by coughing and sneezing, and by contact with the eyes, mouth, and nasal mucosa of the hands after touching the surfaces that the respiratory secretions of the patients come into contact with.

Coronaviruses (coronaviruses) are viruses that cannot survive for a long time in the external environment.

Studies have not yet provided sufficient and verifiable information about the duration of contagiousness and the duration of exposure to the external environment of COVID-19.

The coronavirus is transmitted through virus droplets. Transmission through droplets occurs when the liquid particles in the respiratory tract of the sick person are released into the external environment in cases such as coughing and sneezing, making other people sick. Although it is estimated that the droplets do not hang in the air and fall rapidly to the ground, it is known that the disease is transmitted by touching the nose, face, eyes, and mouth after touching these surfaces with hands.

There are very simple measures to be protected. The government is trying to take important measures to reduce transmission: closure of schools or avoiding workplaces as much as possible are some of the measures implemented to reduce contact between people. However, it is not possible to completely prevent this contact with state action. Here, the biggest responsibility falls on individuals. Everyone needs to touch the water and soap. We need to wash our hands frequently, and correctly. Proper washing of hands is described in a way that takes 20 seconds to cover all parts of our hands with plenty of water and soap, between the fingers, rubbing around the thumb, and making sure that the soap touches the entire surface of the hand.

In an environment where soap and water are not available, it is very important to have hand sanitizer or cologne that will kill the virus and to clean our hands frequently with it. We can reduce the risk of contamination by cleaning surfaces similarly. If these measures are taken, which is 90% of the protection, if we protect ourselves, we will also protect society. On the other hand, approaches such as "I am young, I am mild" should not be an excuse for imprudence. The virus that infects young people and children will also infect the elderly who are close to them. The responsibility of not infecting the elderly falls on the young. For this reason, everyone, whether young or old, should feel the same responsibility and pay attention to these precautions in order not to infect others. One person's mistake will endanger the entire society. That's why we all have to work very carefully together.

What Are the Ways of Protection from Coronavirus (Coronavirus)?

Since vaccines to prevent Covid-19 disease caused by a strain of a coronavirus are still under development, the most effective way to prevent the disease is to avoid exposure to this virus. Since the virus mainly spreads from person to person, taking very simple but important measures will take great steps towards preventing the disease.


The first of the most important measures to prevent is to wash hands frequently with soap and water. It is essential to wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing, especially when in a public place. When soap and water are not available, hands should be cleaned with an alcohol-based hand rub.

 Who Should Have the Pneumonia Vaccine?

The germs that most commonly cause pneumonia are pneumococci. Vaccination against pneumococci. The groups where pneumococci are at risk and cause frequent infections are the groups that should be vaccinated. Although people over 65 years of age do not have any disease, they are under the threat of pneumococci. For this reason, pneumococcal vaccination should be done to everyone over the age of 65.

In addition, people with chronic diseases should be vaccinated. It is recommended to have the pneumococcal vaccine in people with heart failure or heart muscle failure, which are among the chronic heart diseases. However, if there is no other heart problem other than hypertension, there is no need for vaccination.

Again, diabetics, chronic lung patients, cancer patients should also be vaccinated. It is in the group that should be vaccinated in cases with chronic immune problems. However, people who do not require treatment, such as allergic rhinitis, who still get sick frequently, do not need to be vaccinated unless they have a medically proven deficiency in immunity.

People with chronic kidney failure and chronic liver failure should not forget to get vaccinated. Everyone over the age of 65 should be vaccinated. It is beneficial for people in the age group of 19-65 with chronic problems to ask their physicians, learn whether their disease is risky for pneumococcus, and get vaccinated.

Does the Pneumonia Vaccine Protect From Covid-19?

There is no direct relationship between the pneumonia vaccine and the coronavirus. In one word, the pneumococcal vaccine does not protect against coronavirus. However, coronavirus infection is a severe viral infection. After that, people can develop pneumonia. Therefore, the vaccine will protect against pneumonia that will develop after the coronavirus.

Whoever needed the pneumococcal a year ago should be given the pneumococcal vaccine again during this epidemic period. This method is used not because it is an epidemic, but because pneumococci cause pneumonia, which can cause serious problems.

Coronavirus (Coronavirus) Incubation Period

Symptoms of coronavirus may also vary depending on the person's immune system and age. However, according to the data obtained, the incubation period usually occurs within 2 to 14 days after the patient is infected.

However, in the observations, it has been determined that most of the infected people show signs of infection within 3 to 10 days.

How Are Flu, Allergy, and New Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) Different From Each Other?

Allergy is a quite different from viral infections with its mechanism of formation. But it can be confused with some virus infections as a symptom.

The most confusing of these is known as hay fever, a type of allergy that occurs in spring, especially to the pollen of various trees.

When these come into contact with the eye mucosa or nasal mucosa, the person's eyes may tear, red, runny nose, and symptoms such as sneezing attacks may be seen, just like a person with a cold.

Some symptoms detected in virus infections are not found in this allergy. Symptoms such as fever, extreme weakness, fatigue, muscle aches, sore throat are not detected in allergies.

Whether the virus infection is flu or coronavirus, the most important distinguishing symptoms that we will see and tell us about the infection are symptoms such as fever, sore throat, and muscle aches.

Clinical Picture of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

The New Coronavirus Disease is a disease that generally progresses with high fever and cough, and in advanced cases, difficulty in breathing. In addition to these, it has been shown that different symptoms such as nausea vomiting, diarrhea, muscle-joint pain, loss of appetite may occur.

While the disease reveals a milder clinical picture in young and healthy people, it occurs with more severe clinical pictures that may need to be managed in hospital conditions, especially in people with lung disease, advanced age, diabetes, and/or blood pressure patients, and immune system diseases.

Is the New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Deadly?

According to the data obtained from the people who have the disease, although the disease follows a slow course, it is more severe in people over 65 years of age and has chronic illness compared to young and healthy people, and it can cause death especially in this group with the respiratory failure syndrome it causes.

What is the Mortality Rates of the New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)?

While the coronavirus is overcome with mild symptoms in young patients and children, it affects people over 65 years of age and people with chronic diseases such as lung, diabetes, and blood pressure.


Although different data can be found in various scientific sources, death rates by age groups are generally;

  • 3.6 percent for the 60 - 69 age group,
  • 1.3 percent for the 50 - 59 age group,
  • 0.4 percent for the 40-49 age group
  • It is stated as 0.2 percent for 39 years old and under.

According to the statistics given, it is observed that the mortality rates due to coronavirus in children and young people (in the 10 to 39 age group) are the lowest.

Is It Dangerous To Go To Crowded Places In The Coronavirus Outbreak?

Coronavirus is a type of virus that is transmitted by contact and respiration. For this reason, it is very important for people not to be in public areas to prevent contact with each other in terms of keeping the danger under control.

Effects of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) on Pregnant Women

Pregnant women are among the groups that the New Coronavirus Disease may pose a health risk. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting respiratory diseases due to hormonal changes, both structurally and due to changes in their immune systems.

It is observed that especially pregnant women over 35 years of age, with lung diseases, heart, kidney, and HIV positive are in this risk group. There is not enough data yet on whether the New Coronavirus Disease causes problems such as miscarriage in pregnant women.

There is not enough scientific data on whether it will pass to the baby if the mother is infected.

Pregnant women should avoid contact as much as possible and therefore should not be in crowded environments. It is known that the virus is mostly transmitted through droplets. Pregnant women should stay away from the environment if people are coughing or sneezing around them.

Apart from this, it is recommended that they eat healthily, consume plenty of fluids, do not neglect their vitamins, consume beverages such as kefir or linden, and do not neglect their exercises.

Can a Mother with COVID-19 Continue Breastfeeding?

There is no scientific evidence that the coronavirus is transmitted through milk in nursing mothers. Likewise, there was no evidence that other strains of the coronavirus were passed through milk. However, if the mother has a suspicion of coronavirus, it is necessary to pay attention to the hygiene rules at the highest level.

While it is not medically recommended for the mother to stop breastfeeding the baby, it is recommended that the mother wash her hands before breastfeeding and, if possible, express the milk and give it to a person who is not at risk of infection.

COVID-19 Precautions for Travellers

In line with the measures taken in our country, many foreign countries have been banned. However, for domestic or compulsory travel, people should pay attention to the following rules.

Being careful with sick people, maintaining a distance of at least 1 meter if possible,

If it is thought that there has been contacted with a sick person, washing hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand disinfectant for at least 20 seconds,

Covering the mouth and nose area with a disposable tissue paper in cases such as coughing, sneezing, runny nose, if the person does not have a handkerchief, not to use the inside of the elbow and smear it around,

  • Mask must be used if there are symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection.
  • Avoiding undercooked or raw meat products, preferring well-cooked foods instead,
  • Avoiding areas such as livestock markets and farms as much as possible

After the trip, the person should watch himself at home for 14 days and if he has complaints such as high fever or breathing difficulties, he should go to the nearest health institution by wearing a mask.

What is Quarantine? What is Insulation?

The purpose of quarantine or isolation is to keep the sick person in a separate place so that they do not infect others.

Quarantine means forty in Latin. In the past, the concept of quarantine emerged as a result of the ships being kept at the port for 40 days in order not to catch any disease from the crew.

Today, similarly, the name quarantine is also used against different diseases. For example, the incubation period of the new coronavirus infection (Covid-19) has been observed to be 14 days.

For this reason, people with suspected new coronavirus disease should be isolated or quarantined for 14 days and kept separately from other people. People with suspected coronavirus can be placed in isolation at home if they are not at risk of death.


Isolation in the hospital may not be necessary if suspected persons can cut off contact with others in their homes. The person can also apply isolation or self-quarantine at home.

What is the Difference Between New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and Spanish Flu?

The Spanish flu is a pandemic that took place during the First World War. Compared to that day, today's health conditions are quite different. Considering the conditions of the period,

Spanish Flu is a pandemic that occurred in days when the transmission routes were not fully understood, therefore preventive measures could not be taken and supportive treatments in intensive care units could not be performed well.

For this reason, it is known that more people died from this disease than the people who died directly in the war in the First World War due to this pandemic, which was called the Spanish Flu.

With the medical care facilities and precautions provided by today's scientific developments, it is in our hands that COVID-19 will not be experienced to this extent.

The important thing is to prevent a large part of society from being infected by breaking the chain of transmission as much as possible.

People need to protect themselves from the disease as much as possible by taking the recommended measures in order not to increase the patient load of hospitals and the health system; In this way, health institutions and health professionals will be able to need more medical care, have the opportunity to provide better care to patients in the risk group, and reduce the losses that may be caused by the disease as much as possible.

All the measures that are being taken at the moment are aimed at slowing the rate of transmission in the community by breaking the chain of transmission as much as possible.

Does Covid-19 Cause Acute Liver Failure?

The novel coronavirus disease pandemic is widely observed all over the world. Although it has sharper effects in the upper and lower respiratory tract, it is still a matter of scientific debate whether it is involved in the liver and other organs. According to some studies on coronavirus infections, although some of the cases were found to be mildly elevated in liver enzymes, it is currently common knowledge that this cannot be associated with liver failure and acute liver failures are rarely seen in COVID-19 patients.


How Do Coronavirus Affect Kidney Patients?

The new type of coronavirus threatens patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis and transplantation. In kidney patients, other typical symptoms such as high fever and cough and shortness of breath seen in Covid-19 disease may be absent or milder.

How Should Chronic Kidney Patients Be Protected From Covid-19?

The new type of coronavirus, which has spread all over the world, especially affects those with chronic diseases and the elderly and has a more severe course in these people who have Covid-19 disease. In addition to people with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, diabetes, and COPD, chronic kidney patients should also be more careful.

Who Are Chronic Kidney Patients?

People who are diagnosed with kidney disease clinically, radiologically, or pathologically and these diseases have lasted for at least 3 months are considered chronic kidney disease. As the rate at which the kidneys work decreases, the severity of chronic kidney disease increases. In particular, when kidney functions fall below 60 percent, the incidence of additional diseases, including infectious diseases, increases.

How Does Coronavirus Affect Which Kidney Patients?

The immune systems of patients with chronic kidney disease, especially dialysis and kidney transplant patients, are weak. People who have had a kidney transplant have to use immunosuppressive drugs continuously. All types of infections pose a high health risk in this group of patients, including Covid-19. As kidney functions deteriorate, the incidence of both bacterial and viral infections increases. Because the contagiousness of the coronavirus is so high, the risk in kidney patients is higher than in the general population.

Risk of Dialysis Patients

Patients who regularly go to dialysis centers 3 or 2 times a week for hemodialysis treatment are at higher risk for Covid-19. There is no blood route among the known transmission routes of the virus. Therefore, it is accepted that the disease is not transmitted through the dialysis machine.

What Are the Symptoms of Covid-19 in Kidney Patients?

Covid-19 symptoms start with a high fever. In patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, the body's heat regulation mechanisms (thermoregulation) are impaired. Therefore, the majority of patients may have the disease without fever. There are early reports that other Covid-19 findings are seen more indistinctly in dialysis patients. In this respect, chronic kidney patients can be a source of transmission without showing symptoms.

How Does Covid-19 Disease Proceed in Kidney Patients?

Although the Covid-19 disease especially affects the respiratory tract, it is observed that the kidneys are also affected. In this disease, it has been determined that acute renal failure is between 3-9 percent and protein leakage in the urine is between 40-45 percent. Mortality is more common in patients with acute renal failure. Acute kidney disease is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the patient group mentioned is considered to be high risk and it can be predicted that the Covid-19 infection will progress more severely in this group.

What to Do If Covid-19 Symptoms Are Observed?

Chronic hemodialysis patients are constantly treated in dialysis centers where dialysis physicians are present. Patients with fever, sore throat, cough, and shortness of breath should make their first application to dialysis physicians. In case of similar complaints, kidney transplant patients should contact the organ transplant center by phone, give information about their general condition, and act by the instructions of the nephrology specialist.


Chronic kidney patients who are not dialysis or transplant patients should take care to stay at home, and if they have complaints, they should reach the nephrology specialist who monitors them by phone and get information on how to behave. The person who thinks he is infected, first of all, care should be taken not to transmit the coronavirus to the environment. For this reason, it is necessary to apply to a health institution immediately, taking care of social distance, wearing a mask, and washing hands.

Routine Treatment Absolutely Must Not Be Disrupted!

Almost all chronic kidney patients use medication regularly. In particular, the use of blood pressure medications, heart medications, various vitamins, blood medications, and immunosuppressive drugs should not be interrupted. Routine treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease diagnosed with Covid-19 should be continued. Dialysis patients should not disrupt their dialysis treatments. Mandatory dialysis should adapt to changes in the day and frequency of dialysis.

How Can Dialysis Patients Be Protected?

Dialysis patients cannot stay at home all the time. They have to go to dialysis centers 3 days a week. In dialysis centers, basic contamination precautions should be taken, the distance between each bed should be at least 2 meters. All healthcare personnel and patients should wear masks. The dialysis patient, whose diagnosis of Covid-19 has been confirmed, should be followed up by being hospitalized in a hospital with a hemodialysis center or machine.

They Should Wear Masks

Kidney transplant patients, dialysis patients, and advanced chronic kidney patients should wear a mask against coronavirus. A simple surgical mask is sufficient. In addition, frequent hand washing, not bringing hands to the face, avoiding collective activities are very important in protection from coronavirus.

How Do Coronavirus Affect Heart Patients?

The coronavirus started in China and spread all over the world, causing the Covid-19 disease. Covid-19 is similar to other known influenza viruses. However, it differs from influenza in the effects it shows. Because the coronavirus affects more organs. It is more severe especially in elderly people (immune system suppressed) and milder in young people. In short, the older the organs are, the harder it is to protect itself against the coronavirus.

Which Chronic Disease is most common in those with it?

The riskiest group for coronavirus is people over the age of 60-65. Although it is seen in children and young adults, loss of life and organ damage is more common in older people. Those with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes are at greater risk. In a report published in China, it was stated that 40 percent of those who caught Covid-19 had heart disease and 12 percent had diabetes. According to another scientific publication published in China, infection patients are those with chronic cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes.

The death toll is the highest among those with cardiovascular disease with 10.5 percent. This is followed by those with hypertension with 6 percent. While Covid-19 is more common and severe in those with chronic cardiovascular disease, it is watching with loss of life.

Covid-19 Symptoms in Chronic Patients

The symptoms of Covid-19 are generally similar to the flu, with a feeling of weakness, exhaustion, and malaise. However, it differs from the flu with the following features; severe cough, high fever, and less runny nose and eyes, more shortness of breath, and extreme weakness. People with chronic heart disease may have different symptoms. These people may have abnormally high blood pressure.

Because the virus enters the cells by affecting the enzyme receptors in the body. This is why blood pressure rises. This may be worse in people with heart failure. The risk of heart attack increases in people with cardiovascular disease, as the inflammatory state in the body increases due to immune complexes and fever formed by the coronavirus.

It Also Aggravates Heart Disease

The course of Covid-19 is much more severe and long-lasting in those with chronic heart disease. People's heart diseases also become more severe. E.g; People with 2nd-degree heart failure may have 3rd and 4th-degree heart problems. Blood pressure can get out of control and cause rhythm disturbances.


Can I Use Blood Pressure Medicines?

The relationship between hypertension and coronavirus should be examined. Because the coronavirus enters the cells, especially in the lung, through the angiotensin receptor. In this way, this virus begins to maintain its life in the cell. This receptor is important for hypertension. Medicines for this are also the most commonly used blood pressure medicines in the world. There have been discussions that these drugs will increase the effects of the virus in the body. However, according to the statement of the American Heart Association and the European Heart Association, it was stated that using this group of drugs called angiotensin-converting receptor inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers did not harm patients. Blood pressure patients can use these drugs without worry.

When Should Heart Patients Go to the Doctor?

People with chronic diseases should go to their heart doctor when there is any unexpected change in blood pressure or sugar levels before they are diagnosed with coronavirus. Again, when they feel abnormal palpitation, shortness of breath, and fatigue outside of normal, they should consult a doctor without waiting. In short, if they are using sentences such as "I wouldn't normally be this tired, I've been tired for 3 days", "My blood pressure has been high for 2 days", they should consult their doctor immediately. If there is a condition such as fever, cough, new shortness of breath, ask heart doctors, internists, or infection doctors, "Do I have a viral infection?" they should go.

How Are Treatments Affected?

Especially heart medications should be continued regularly. Cholesterol, blood pressure, heart medications can be used. This virus can infect the heart, lungs, brain, internal organs, and heart muscle. When the coronavirus afflicts the heart muscle, a heart inflammation called myocarditis occurs. myocarditis; causes complaints such as palpitation, fatigue, and fatigue. In other words, a faster and more extreme shortness of breath and palpitations are seen than expected. At this point, whether the coronavirus also affects the heart is examined by the heart doctor. In short, patients with cardiovascular disease and blood pressure should consult their physician or a cardiologist in case of abnormal conditions.

How to Protect Heart Patients from Coronavirus?

  • Especially people over the age of 60-65 should not enter crowded environments.
  • It should not be closer than 5 meters to people with influenza infection.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • It should be fed regularly.
  • They should not tire the body physically and psychologically and sleep well.
  • They should keep the immunity fit.
  • Should not enter crowded environments unless necessary.
  • Must be worn outside with gloves and mask. However, this glove should be thrown away immediately afterward. They should not touch their daily items such as cell phones, combs, and handkerchiefs with that glove. After the glove is used in public areas such as the subway, it should be peeled off and thrown away immediately.
  • They should consult a doctor in case of an unexpected problem.

What Should Cardiovascular Patients Pay Attention to in the Coronavirus Pandemic?

First of all, cardiovascular patients should comply with social isolation the most. Especially our patients over the age of 60 are at very high risk. During this period, we should reduce contact even with individuals we think are healthy, taking into account the possibility of being carriers. We must be very careful about personal hygiene.

During this period, we also have some patients who had an operation or treatment planned before. It is more appropriate to postpone the procedures of patients who are currently scheduled for an operation due to cardiovascular disease unless there is an emergency. The decision to postpone can be made if your doctor who follows you sees it appropriate.


In this regard, it may be possible to delay, especially in heart valve patients who do not have serious complaints. If the patients who will be planned coronary bypass or stent have no complaints, the issue can often be postponed. However, in such patients, sometimes the complaints may be advanced or vascular occlusions may be common. Therefore, postponement may not be possible in some patients.

Another issue; routine examination and control of cardiovascular patients. If you do not have an emergency, you can delay your control by talking to your doctor. The Ministry of Health applies some conveniences for the supply of medicines and prescriptions.

There may be some risks for patients who have had previous heart or vascular surgery. However, it is not appropriate to approach every person who has had heart surgery because they are at high risk. If there is the chronic heart or lung dysfunction in people who have had heart surgery, this may pose a risk for severe infection. Better to be more careful. Another risk group is patients with a prosthesis in the heart. E.g; people who have had a heart valve replacement. These patients may have a slightly higher sensitivity to infection in general or the symptoms that may occur as a result of infection may be a little more severe.

There was some speculation between the use of certain hypertension drugs and the risk of coronavirus transmission. However, these were refuted by scientific data. With the latest update published by the European Society of Cardiology, it is recommended that patients with hypertension continue their medications as they are.

Another important thing is exercise. There are some exercises that we recommend to be done regularly for cardiovascular patients or people in the risk group. Staying still, especially under home isolation, can have negative consequences. Patients who are at risk for cardiovascular health under social isolation can apply for exercise programs. For this, you can follow some group exercise programs on social media. It is beneficial to clean the exercise equipment you use with surface disinfectants every time, you should ventilate the room you work in regularly. However, there are some very important points to consider about exercise.

Rules About Exercise

  • You should plan your exercise program according to your disease and risk status. If you are not sick and you are a person who has exercised regularly before, only do strength-conserving exercises during this period, improving exercises are not suitable during this period. This can be in the form of a program of 20-45 minutes a day, 3 times a week. More than 5 days a week would not be appropriate.
  • If you are someone who has not done sports before, this period may be an opportunity to start exercising, but you should only do light-medium intensity movements 3 days a week. Extremely strenuous exercise exercises are not suitable for the immune system during this period, as they may reduce the secretion of some protective antibodies in the respiratory tract. It is also not appropriate to exercise after an extremely tiring period, you can increase your risk of infection.
  • If you are sick, do not exercise if you have a high fever. It is more convenient for you to rest. If you have mild upper respiratory tract discomfort (for example, malaise or nasal fullness), you can do light exercise for 20-30 minutes a day, 3 times a week. Even if you do not have a fever, if you have signs of lower respiratory tract infection (shortness of breath, cough with sputum), do not exercise, it is more appropriate to rest.
  • In some severe cases, we may have heart patients for whom we cannot recommend an exercise program. In this regard, it is useful to consult your doctor.
  • In addition to paying attention to all these, other important issues for our heart patients are healthy nutrition and quality sleep. These two are essential for a healthy immune system. We also need a strong immune system more than ever during the coronavirus pandemic.

Secondary Infection Link with Covid-19

Secondary infections can be encountered in the course of the Covid-19 disease. According to studies, there is a high incidence of secondary infections in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. It is known that early ICU need, respiratory failure, and severe lymphopenia are defined as risk factors for secondary infections.

Sepsis and Septic Shock Could Be a Result of Covid-19!

Septic shock, although very common, is one of the clinical conditions that are unknown to humans and causes the most death. Sepsis comes to light when the bacteria that cause an infection in the body mix with the blood and the immune system in the body shows a great reaction against these bacteria. Sepsis is the body's most severe response to infections and can be fatal if left untreated.

Symptoms of sepsis include slurred speech, confusion, extreme chills, muscle pain, fever, inability to urinate all day, severe shortness of breath, pallor, or mottling on the skin. The best way to prevent sepsis is to prevent infection first. If sepsis develops despite all precautions, rapid control of the focus of infection and intensive care support can be life-saving.

It is thought that most of the losses due to Covid-19 are due to sepsis and sepsis may be one of the possible consequences of Covid-19. It has been observed that microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, seasonal flu viruses, avian and swine flu viruses, as well as coronavirus, can occur. In some of the Covid-19 patients who have severe disease, multi-organ failure can be seen due to sepsis.


In severe sepsis cases, an inflammatory process occurs throughout the body and this is called septic shock. Septic shock brings with it a drop in blood pressure and can result in death. Antibiotic therapy to fight infection, respiratory support, fluid overload to increase blood pressure and prevent dehydration is vital.

Covid-19 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Link

Although the long-term damage of Covid-19 disease has not been fully determined, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is thought to continue as a possible long-term effect of Covid-19. According to the studies, many patients whose tests were negative as a result of the treatment process reported that some symptoms still did not disappear and the problems continued.

Although the focus has been on saving lives during the pandemic process, now eliminating the long-term effects of the coronavirus has also become a major problem and concern. Because the quality of life of people is destroyed.

Experts have realized that long-standing viral infections can be catalysts for other health problems that persist after the illness has subsided. Chronic fatigue syndrome typically follows an upper respiratory tract infection from which the patient has not made a full recovery. The main symptom is deep muscle fatigue, but poor memory, lack of concentration, and sleep disturbance are also common features.

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